Hosting is a default behavior in JavaScript of moving declarations at the top. While executing a code, it creates a global execution context: creation and execution. In the creation phase, JavaScript moves the variable and function declaration to the top of the page, which is known as hoisting.

// variable hoisting
let counter = 1; // throws ReferenceError: Cannot access 'counter' before initialization

Although the counter is present in the heap memory but hasn't been initialized so, it throws an error. This happens because of hoisting, the counter variable is hoisted here.

// function hoisting
const x = 20,
    y = 10;

let result = add(x,y); // ❌ Uncaught ReferenceError: add is not defined

let add = (x, y) => x + y; 

Here, the add function is hoisted and initialized with undefined in heap memory in the creation phase of the global execution context. Thus, throwing an error.

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